How To Calculate Depreciation Expense Using Units Of Production Method?

Units of Production Depreciation

Depreciable cost can be determined by using the cost of the fixed asset deducting its estimated salvage value. For example, miles driven or flown might be most appropriate for a delivery truck or airplane, whereas units produced may be the most suitable for a lathe or other machine. If they use the straight-line method, they will have very high profits in the periods when production and sales were high but there will be low profits when the sales and productions were on the low side. Because in both the cases depreciation was charged at a fixed price. In this method, the amount of depreciation expense is much higher in the period of heavy production compared to the periods of low production. This does not require whether the asset is partially or fully used during the accounting period. You can also enter the units used value and run depreciation for more than one period.

This depreciation method is often considered the most difficult to calculate. Depreciation MethodDepreciation is a systematic allocation method used to account for the costs of any physical or tangible asset throughout its useful life. Its value indicates how much of an asset’s worth has been utilized. Depreciation enables companies to generate revenue from their assets while only charging a fraction of the cost of the asset in use each year. We will segregate the unit of production depreciation formula into two parts to understand it in a better way.

What Is The Units Of Production Method?

You cannot use units of production depreciation to calculate your tax deduction. However, it’s one of the four methods of depreciation allowed for Generally Accepted Accounting Principles .

Units of Production Depreciation

In this method, depreciation expense is acted as a variable expense. This method must be used only when total units of output of an asset can be estimated with accuracy over the life of the asset. Instead, add the asset with zero accumulated depreciation, and then provide the life-to-date production quantity as the current period production quantity. Assets uses the production amount you enter to calculate the catchup depreciation. Is a very common, and the simplest, method of calculating depreciation expense. In straight-line depreciation, the expense amount is the same every year over the useful life of the asset. Estimate the total number of hours of usage of the asset, or the total number of units to be produced by it over its useful life.

Units Of Production Depreciation Method

The sum-of-the-years-digits method is one of the accelerated depreciation methods. A higher expense is incurred in the early years and a lower expense in the latter years of the asset’s useful life.

This calculator is for units of production method of depreciation of an asset or, the amount of depreciation for each unit and period. This calculation is equivalent to our units of activity depreciation calculator. To calculate the annual depreciation expenses for the crane, we’re going to calculate the units of production rate first.

Unit Of Production Depreciation Definition

“You have an excellent service and I will be sure to pass the word.” For MACRS and ACRS the salvage value is not applied to depreciation of U.S. tax and commercial books. In an oil field, the asset cost is the value of the oil that’s extracted.

Units of Production Depreciation

For example, at the beginning of the year, the asset has a remaining life of 8 years. The following year, the asset has a remaining life of 7 years, etc. Derek Miller is a writer specializing in entrepreneurship, small business, and digital marketing. His work has featured in sites like Entrepreneur, GoDaddy,, and StartupCamp. He’s currently the CMO of Smack Apparel, the content guru at, and a marketing consultant for small businesses.

What Is Unit Cost Formula?

The unit of production method plays a vital role in the calculation of depreciation of assets owned by a company. For specific years in which an asset is put into use and have more unit productions, a company can claim higher depreciation deductions.

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How To Calculate Units Of Production Depreciation In Excel

However, when the units of production method is used, the life in years is of no consequence. The units of production depreciation method works to address this principle by tracking how much an item is used and using that to determine its value. Get to know this depreciation method better to see if it is right for you.

  • Both records are considered non-cash expenses as they will not affect the cash flow of a company.
  • For example, one asset X produce 10 units, and another asset Y produce 20 units, both are the same asset, but the depreciation of Y will be higher as compared to X asset because of more unit produced.
  • Then you will multiply this rate by the actual units produced during the year.
  • She most recently worked at Duke University and is the owner of Peggy James, CPA, PLLC, serving small businesses, nonprofits, solopreneurs, freelancers, and individuals.
  • The third variable to calculate is the actual “depreciation expense,” which is recorded on the income statement.

The steps to calculate the unit of production depreciation expense for the crane in year one are calculate the units of production rate for the crane and calculate the crane depreciation expense. The IRS doesn’t allow units of production depreciation for tax purposes, so it’s primarily used for internal bookkeeping.

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This yields the depreciation cost per hour of usage or unit of production. This method of depreciation applies to the assets that are subject to heavy production activities. And in this method, the depreciation calculation or write-off of assets happens based on the quantum of production. In other words, this method is preferable where the life of the asset is mostly dependent upon its usage/production volume. The depreciation is more for the period in which the volume of production is high and vice versa. Units of production depreciation calculator is made to help users in the quick calculation of depreciation as per this method. In Step 1, we determined the units of production rate for your WidgetMaker 3000 was $0.10/Widget.

If units of input (e.g., operating hours, materials, or labor-hours) are more descriptive than cost incurred or benefit obtained , the firm can use them to determine the depreciation expense. However, for static assets such as buildings, the units of production method is inappropriate. The cost of some assets can be allocated easily according to their estimated production or output rather than their life. It is suitable for calculating depreciation on assets such as delivery trucks and equipment for which substantial variation in usage occurs. While in the year 5 the production is at the lowest side with only 10,000 units to be produced.

However, MACRS did not accurately track losses and profits that an asset generate over time like the unit of production method. The units of production depreciation method is more cumbersome to calculate than most of the other depreciation methods.

The unit of production method most accurately measures depreciation for assets where the “wear and tear” is based on how much they have produced, such as manufacturing or processing equipment. Using the unit of production method for this type of equipment can help a business keep track of its profits and losses more accurately than a chronology-based method such as straight-line depreciation or MACRS methods. Its means that their base is units produced by the plant instead of number of estimated useful life. In this method the amount of depreciation expense is much higher in the period of heavy production compared to the periods of low production. In this method we use the units produced as the base price instead of estimated useful life. The units-of-production depreciation method depreciates assets based on the total number of hours used or the total number of units to be produced by using the asset, over its useful life.


The unit of production method for calculating depreciation considers an asset’s practical usage in the production process rather than considering its time in use. The Units of Production method calculates depreciation based on an assets usage rather than the passage of time.

Thus, depreciation expense is a variable cost when using the units of production method. The depreciation formula helps businesses calculate the amount they can depreciate each year so as to spread the cost of an asset over its useful life. The company wants to depreciate the machine using the diminishing balance depreciation method with a rate of depreciation of 30%. Generally, assets such as buildings, equipment, furniture, motor vehicles, and other tangible fixed assets are depreciated. The following formula is used to calculate the units of production depreciation. In the example shown, there is an asset with an initial cost of $20,000 and a salvage value of $4,000. The total units can be produced by the asset is estimated as 400 units.

The concept of these assets losing their value, can be defined by a single word ‘Depreciation’ and the method of calculating the ratio of depreciation respective to each unit is known as units of production depreciation. The Unit of Production method is a form of Depreciation used to allocate fixed costs throughout the useful life of an asset. Fixed costs usually relate to labor and property usage, or some other measure. This allocation spreads out fixed costs across the number of units produced or used over the course of an asset’s life.

For example, one asset X produce 10 units, and another asset Y produce 20 units, both are the same asset, but the depreciation of Y will be higher as compared to X asset because of more unit produced. In year, when number of units produced high will depreciate more amount and when Units of Production Depreciation number of units produced low will depreciate low amount. This method of depreciation is good for assets that have greater productivity in their early years of service. There are several methods of depreciation that are used to compute the depreciation on a business’s assets.

If the machine produces 10,000 units in the first year, the depreciation for the year will be $20,000 ($2 x 10,000 units). If the machine produces 50,000 units in the next year, the depreciation will be $100,000 ($2 x 50,000 units). The depreciation will be calculated similarly each year until the asset’s Accumulated Depreciation reaches $480,000. Next, let’s dive deep into the units of production depreciation method. It is charged based on usage of the asset and avoid charging unnecessary depreciation.

The calculation bases depreciation on the relative amount of units used since the last depreciation, compared to the life of the asset expressed in units. This method is closely related to the units an asset produces during its useful life. In the above example, depreciation for the first year is $106,875. This method signifies that the more the usage of asset more will be its depreciation. The company has manufactured the highest quantum in the first year hence the depreciation is also maximum in that year. Also, the depreciation has decreased with the decrease in manufacturing volume over the following years. Depreciable value means the value to be depreciated over the life of the asset.

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